Oil film thickness

from datetime import datetime, timedelta
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from opendrift.models.openoil import OpenOil


number = 10000
timestep = timedelta(minutes=10)
timestep_output = timedelta(minutes=60)
duration = timedelta(hours=20)
mass_oil = 2000  # mass oil per particle
oil_type = 'GENERIC DIESEL'
#oil_type = 'GENERIC BUNKER C'

First run, where surface oil thickness is updated

o1 = OpenOil(loglevel=20, weathering_model='noaa')

Out:

13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: OpenDriftSimulation initialised (version 1.7.1 / v1.7.1-87-g074c1d2)

Northwards wind, eastwards current

o1.set_config('environment:fallback:land_binary_mask', 0)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:x_wind', 0)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:y_wind', 7)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity', 0)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity', .3)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:x_sea_water_velocity', .1)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:y_sea_water_velocity', 0)

Using Johansen droplet spectrum, which depends on oil film thickness

o1.set_config('wave_entrainment:droplet_size_distribution',
             'Johansen et al. (2015)')
o1.set_config('drift:wind_uncertainty', 2)
o1.set_config('drift:current_uncertainty', .1)
o1.set_config('processes:dispersion', False)
o1.set_config('processes:update_oilfilm_thickness', True)

o1.seed_elements(lon=4.5, lat=60, number=number,
                mass_oil=mass_oil, radius=1000,
                oil_type=oil_type,
                time=datetime.utcnow())
o1.run(time_step=timestep, time_step_output=timestep_output,
       duration=duration)

Out:

querying DB:
Oil.name ==  'GENERIC DIESEL'
/opt/conda/envs/opendrift/lib/python3.9/site-packages/scipy/optimize/minpack.py:833: OptimizeWarning: Covariance of the parameters could not be estimated
  warnings.warn('Covariance of the parameters could not be estimated',
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil: Using density 841.2901723334885 and viscosity 6.3404392151148305e-06 of oiltype GENERIC DIESEL
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: Fallback values will be used for the following variables which have no readers:
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    x_sea_water_velocity: 0.100000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    y_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    x_wind: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    y_wind: 7.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    upward_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_significant_height: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity: 0.300000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_period_at_variance_spectral_density_maximum: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_mean_period_from_variance_spectral_density_second_frequency_moment: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_ice_area_fraction: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_ice_x_velocity: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_ice_y_velocity: 0.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_water_temperature: 10.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_water_salinity: 34.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_floor_depth_below_sea_level: 10000.000000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    ocean_vertical_diffusivity: 0.020000
13:47:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: No land reader added, making a temporary landmask reader
13:47:58 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: OpenDriftSimulation initialised (version 1.7.1 / v1.7.1-87-g074c1d2)
13:47:58 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: All points are in ocean
13:47:58 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil: Oil-water surface tension is 0.029436 Nm
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Animation shows how oil thickness evolves, and decreases due to evaporation and spreading

unitfactor=1e6  # show film thickness in micrometers
o1.animation(color='oil_film_thickness', fast=True,
             vmin=1e-7*unitfactor, vmax=1e-4*unitfactor,
             unitfactor=unitfactor, surface_only=True)

Out:

13:48:47 WARNING opendrift.models.basemodel: Plotting fast. This will make your plots less accurate.
13:48:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: Saving animation to /root/project/docs/source/gallery/animations/example_oil_thickness_0.gif...
13:48:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: Making animated gif...
MovieWriter imagemagick unavailable; using Pillow instead.
../_images/example_oil_thickness_0.gif

Second run, identical but without updating surface oil thickness

o2 = OpenOil(loglevel=20, weathering_model='noaa')
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:land_binary_mask', 0)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:x_wind', 0)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:y_wind', 7)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity', 0)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity', .3)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:x_sea_water_velocity', .1)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:y_sea_water_velocity', 0)

o2.set_config('wave_entrainment:droplet_size_distribution',
             'Johansen et al. (2015)')
o2.set_config('drift:wind_uncertainty', 2)
o2.set_config('drift:current_uncertainty', .1)
o2.set_config('processes:dispersion', False)
o2.set_config('processes:update_oilfilm_thickness', False)

o2.seed_elements(lon=4.5, lat=60, number=number,
                mass_oil=mass_oil, radius=1000,
                oil_type=oil_type,
                time=datetime.utcnow())
o2.run(time_step=timestep, time_step_output=timestep_output,
       duration=duration)

Out:

13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: OpenDriftSimulation initialised (version 1.7.1 / v1.7.1-87-g074c1d2)
querying DB:
Oil.name ==  'GENERIC DIESEL'
/opt/conda/envs/opendrift/lib/python3.9/site-packages/scipy/optimize/minpack.py:833: OptimizeWarning: Covariance of the parameters could not be estimated
  warnings.warn('Covariance of the parameters could not be estimated',
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil: Using density 841.2901723334885 and viscosity 6.3404392151148305e-06 of oiltype GENERIC DIESEL
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: Fallback values will be used for the following variables which have no readers:
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    x_sea_water_velocity: 0.100000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    y_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    x_wind: 0.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    y_wind: 7.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    upward_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_significant_height: 0.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity: 0.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity: 0.300000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_period_at_variance_spectral_density_maximum: 0.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_surface_wave_mean_period_from_variance_spectral_density_second_frequency_moment: 0.000000
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13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_water_temperature: 10.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_water_salinity: 34.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    sea_floor_depth_below_sea_level: 10000.000000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:    ocean_vertical_diffusivity: 0.020000
13:48:55 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: No land reader added, making a temporary landmask reader
13:48:58 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: OpenDriftSimulation initialised (version 1.7.1 / v1.7.1-87-g074c1d2)
13:48:58 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: All points are in ocean
13:48:58 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil: Oil-water surface tension is 0.029436 Nm
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Comparison plots

o1.plot_oil_budget()
o2.plot_oil_budget()
  • GENERIC DIESEL (841.3 kg/m3) - 2021-09-24 13:47 to 2021-09-25 09:47
  • GENERIC DIESEL (841.3 kg/m3) - 2021-09-24 13:48 to 2021-09-25 09:48

Entrainment

b1 = o1.get_oil_budget()
b2 = o2.get_oil_budget()
plt.plot(b1['mass_surface'], '-r', linewidth=2,
            label='Surface, updated thickness')
plt.plot(b1['mass_submerged'], '--r', linewidth=2,
            label='Submerged, updated thickness')
plt.plot(b1['mass_evaporated'], '-.r', linewidth=2,
            label='Evaporated, updated thickness')
plt.plot(b2['mass_surface'], '-b', linewidth=2,
            label='Surface, constant thickness')
plt.plot(b2['mass_submerged'], '--b', linewidth=2,
            label='Submerged, constant thickness')
plt.plot(b2['mass_evaporated'], '-.b', linewidth=2,
            label='Evaporated, constant thickness')
plt.legend()
plt.xlabel('Time step')
plt.show()
example oil thickness

We see that with the updated film thickness, the droplets are getting gradually smaller

r1 = o1.get_property('diameter')[0]
r2 = o2.get_property('diameter')[0]
plt.plot(np.median(r1*1e6, 1))
plt.plot(np.median(r2*1e6, 1))
plt.legend(['With updated film thickness', 'With constant film thickness'])
plt.xlabel('Time step')
plt.ylabel('Median droplet diameter  [micrometer]')
plt.show()
example oil thickness

Out:

/opt/conda/envs/opendrift/lib/python3.9/site-packages/numpy/core/fromnumeric.py:755: UserWarning: Warning: 'partition' will ignore the 'mask' of the MaskedArray.
  a.partition(kth, axis=axis, kind=kind, order=order)
/opt/conda/envs/opendrift/lib/python3.9/site-packages/numpy/core/fromnumeric.py:755: UserWarning: Warning: 'partition' will ignore the 'mask' of the MaskedArray.
  a.partition(kth, axis=axis, kind=kind, order=order)

We see that oil film thickness has virtually no impact on horizontal drift

o1.animation(compare=o2, fast=True,
             legend=['Updated film thickness',
                     'Constant/default film thickness'])

Out:

13:49:56 WARNING opendrift.models.basemodel: Plotting fast. This will make your plots less accurate.
13:49:57 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: Saving animation to /root/project/docs/source/gallery/animations/example_oil_thickness_1.gif...
13:49:57 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel: Making animated gif...
MovieWriter imagemagick unavailable; using Pillow instead.
../_images/example_oil_thickness_1.gif

Total running time of the script: ( 2 minutes 13.143 seconds)

Gallery generated by Sphinx-Gallery