Oil film thickness

from datetime import datetime, timedelta
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from opendrift.models.openoil import OpenOil


number = 10000
timestep = timedelta(minutes=10)
timestep_output = timedelta(minutes=60)
duration = timedelta(hours=20)
mass_oil = 2000  # mass oil per particle
oil_type = 'GENERIC DIESEL'
#oil_type = 'GENERIC BUNKER C'

First run, where surface oil thickness is updated

o1 = OpenOil(loglevel=20, weathering_model='noaa')
15:15:44 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:515: OpenDriftSimulation initialised (version 1.11.11 / v1.11.11-3-g3a3de84)

Northwards wind, eastwards current

o1.set_config('environment:fallback:land_binary_mask', 0)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:x_wind', 0)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:y_wind', 7)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity', 0)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity', .3)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:x_sea_water_velocity', .1)
o1.set_config('environment:fallback:y_sea_water_velocity', 0)

Using Johansen droplet spectrum, which depends on oil film thickness

o1.set_config('wave_entrainment:droplet_size_distribution',
             'Johansen et al. (2015)')
o1.set_config('drift:wind_uncertainty', 2)
o1.set_config('drift:current_uncertainty', .1)
o1.set_config('processes:dispersion', False)
o1.set_config('processes:update_oilfilm_thickness', True)

o1.seed_elements(lon=4.5, lat=60, number=number,
                mass_oil=mass_oil, radius=1000,
                oil_type=oil_type,
                time=datetime.utcnow())
o1.run(time_step=timestep, time_step_output=timestep_output,
       duration=duration)
15:15:44 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.adios.dirjs:90: Querying ADIOS database for oil: GENERIC DIESEL
15:15:44 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.openoil:1719: Using density 841.2 and viscosity 6.3404392151148136e-06 of oiltype GENERIC DIESEL
15:15:44 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:218: Adding a dynamical landmask with max. priority based on assumed maximum speed of 1.3 m/s. Adding a customised landmask may be faster...
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:245: Fallback values will be used for the following variables which have no readers:
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    x_sea_water_velocity: 0.100000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    y_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    x_wind: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    y_wind: 7.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_height: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    upward_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_significant_height: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity: 0.300000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_period_at_variance_spectral_density_maximum: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_mean_period_from_variance_spectral_density_second_frequency_moment: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_ice_area_fraction: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_ice_x_velocity: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_ice_y_velocity: 0.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_water_temperature: 10.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_water_salinity: 34.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_floor_depth_below_sea_level: 10000.000000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    ocean_vertical_diffusivity: 0.020000
15:15:49 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    ocean_mixed_layer_thickness: 50.000000
15:15:50 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:936: Using existing reader for land_binary_mask
15:15:50 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:947: All points are in ocean
15:15:50 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.openoil:687: Oil-water surface tension is 0.029464 Nm
15:15:50 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.openoil:700: Max water fraction not available for GENERIC DIESEL, using default
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Animation shows how oil thickness evolves, and decreases due to evaporation and spreading

unitfactor=1e6  # show film thickness in micrometers
o1.animation(color='oil_film_thickness', fast=True,
             vmin=1e-7*unitfactor, vmax=1e-4*unitfactor,
             unitfactor=unitfactor, surface_only=True)
15:16:09 WARNING opendrift.models.basemodel:2411: Plotting fast. This will make your plots less accurate.
15:16:12 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:4608: Saving animation to /root/project/docs/source/gallery/animations/example_oil_thickness_0.gif...
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:3037: Time to make animation: 0:00:16.061548
../_images/example_oil_thickness_0.gif

Second run, identical but without updating surface oil thickness

o2 = OpenOil(loglevel=20, weathering_model='noaa')
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:land_binary_mask', 0)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:x_wind', 0)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:y_wind', 7)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity', 0)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity', .3)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:x_sea_water_velocity', .1)
o2.set_config('environment:fallback:y_sea_water_velocity', 0)

o2.set_config('wave_entrainment:droplet_size_distribution',
             'Johansen et al. (2015)')
o2.set_config('drift:wind_uncertainty', 2)
o2.set_config('drift:current_uncertainty', .1)
o2.set_config('processes:dispersion', False)
o2.set_config('processes:update_oilfilm_thickness', False)

o2.seed_elements(lon=4.5, lat=60, number=number,
                mass_oil=mass_oil, radius=1000,
                oil_type=oil_type,
                time=datetime.utcnow())
o2.run(time_step=timestep, time_step_output=timestep_output,
       duration=duration)
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:515: OpenDriftSimulation initialised (version 1.11.11 / v1.11.11-3-g3a3de84)
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.adios.dirjs:90: Querying ADIOS database for oil: GENERIC DIESEL
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.openoil:1719: Using density 841.2 and viscosity 6.3404392151148136e-06 of oiltype GENERIC DIESEL
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:218: Adding a dynamical landmask with max. priority based on assumed maximum speed of 1.3 m/s. Adding a customised landmask may be faster...
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:245: Fallback values will be used for the following variables which have no readers:
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    x_sea_water_velocity: 0.100000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    y_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    x_wind: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    y_wind: 7.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_height: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    upward_sea_water_velocity: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_significant_height: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_x_velocity: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_stokes_drift_y_velocity: 0.300000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_period_at_variance_spectral_density_maximum: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_surface_wave_mean_period_from_variance_spectral_density_second_frequency_moment: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_ice_area_fraction: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_ice_x_velocity: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_ice_y_velocity: 0.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_water_temperature: 10.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_water_salinity: 34.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    sea_floor_depth_below_sea_level: 10000.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    ocean_vertical_diffusivity: 0.020000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel.environment:248:    ocean_mixed_layer_thickness: 50.000000
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:936: Using existing reader for land_binary_mask
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:947: All points are in ocean
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.openoil:687: Oil-water surface tension is 0.029464 Nm
15:16:25 INFO    opendrift.models.openoil.openoil:700: Max water fraction not available for GENERIC DIESEL, using default
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Comparison plots

o1.plot_oil_budget()
o2.plot_oil_budget()
  • GENERIC DIESEL (841.2 kg/m3) - 2024-07-04 15:15 to 2024-07-05 11:15
  • GENERIC DIESEL (841.2 kg/m3) - 2024-07-04 15:16 to 2024-07-05 11:16

Entrainment

b1 = o1.get_oil_budget()
b2 = o2.get_oil_budget()
plt.plot(b1['mass_surface'], '-r', linewidth=2,
            label='Surface, updated thickness')
plt.plot(b1['mass_submerged'], '--r', linewidth=2,
            label='Submerged, updated thickness')
plt.plot(b1['mass_evaporated'], '-.r', linewidth=2,
            label='Evaporated, updated thickness')
plt.plot(b2['mass_surface'], '-b', linewidth=2,
            label='Surface, constant thickness')
plt.plot(b2['mass_submerged'], '--b', linewidth=2,
            label='Submerged, constant thickness')
plt.plot(b2['mass_evaporated'], '-.b', linewidth=2,
            label='Evaporated, constant thickness')
plt.legend()
plt.xlabel('Time step')
plt.show()
example oil thickness

We see that with the updated film thickness, the droplets are getting gradually smaller

r1 = o1.get_property('diameter')[0]
r2 = o2.get_property('diameter')[0]
plt.plot(np.median(r1*1e6, 1))
plt.plot(np.median(r2*1e6, 1))
plt.legend(['With updated film thickness', 'With constant film thickness'])
plt.xlabel('Time step')
plt.ylabel('Median droplet diameter  [micrometer]')
plt.show()
example oil thickness
/opt/conda/envs/opendrift/lib/python3.11/site-packages/numpy/core/fromnumeric.py:771: UserWarning: Warning: 'partition' will ignore the 'mask' of the MaskedArray.
  a.partition(kth, axis=axis, kind=kind, order=order)

We see that oil film thickness has virtually no impact on horizontal drift

o1.animation(compare=o2, fast=True,
             legend=['Updated film thickness',
                     'Constant/default film thickness'])
15:17:02 WARNING opendrift.models.basemodel:2411: Plotting fast. This will make your plots less accurate.
/opt/conda/envs/opendrift/lib/python3.11/site-packages/cartopy/mpl/geoaxes.py:1683: UserWarning: No data for colormapping provided via 'c'. Parameters 'cmap' will be ignored
  result = super().scatter(*args, **kwargs)
15:17:04 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:4608: Saving animation to /root/project/docs/source/gallery/animations/example_oil_thickness_1.gif...
15:17:21 INFO    opendrift.models.basemodel:3037: Time to make animation: 0:00:19.329623
../_images/example_oil_thickness_1.gif

Total running time of the script: (1 minutes 44.629 seconds)

Gallery generated by Sphinx-Gallery